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Turkish Education System


Education System in Turkey consists of two main parts: formal education and non-formal education. Formal education covers pre-school education, primary education, secondary education, and higher education institutions while non-formal education covers all educational activities organized alongside or outside formal education. Educational institutions are open to everyone, regardless of their language, race, gender, or religion. No privileges are granted to any person, family, group, or class in education. To exercise the right to education in Turkey, it is compulsory to legally be in Turkey. The Turkish education system is under the supervision and control of the state, namely the Ministry of National Education. According to the Constitution of Turkey, everyone has the right to education. Besides the state universities, the first nonprofit private universities started providing education to students in Turkey in 1986. Since 2012, compulsory education in Turkey is 12 years and it is divided into three stages (primary, secondary and high school).

Pre-school education: Pre-school education is carried out in independent kindergartens established for the education of children aged 36-66 months and in nursery classes and practice classes established within formal and non-formal education institutions for the education of children aged 48-66 months. Education provided for children aged 48-66 months in public schools is free, however, the education provided for children aged 36-66 months outside public schools is paid. Compulsory Education: Compulsory education in Turkey is 12 years and it is divided into three stages. The first stage includes a 4-year primary school period, the second stage includes a 4-year secondary school period, and the third stage a 4-year high school. In our country, 12-year education is compulsory for all children aged between 6 and 17. All children in Turkey have the right to access basic services provided by public schools free of charge. In addition, there are private schools affiliated with the Ministry of National Education. These schools are not free of charge like public schools, and the tuition is determined by the school. All primary schools in Turkey implement the same curriculum. In secondary school education, you can optionally enroll in imam hatip secondary schools. Secondary education institutions, named high schools, are science high schools and social sciences high schools. Higher education: After graduating from high school, students can move on to higher education, which is compatible with the three-stage Bologna system.